Basic knowledge of the application and characteristics of CNC lathe machining

CNC lathe machining has been more and more used in modern manufacturing, and has played an incomparable advantage over ordinary lathes. CNC CNC lathe machining has the following characteristics:

  • 1. The transmission chain of CNC lathe machining is short. Compared with ordinary lathes, the main shaft drive is no longer the speed of the motor belt gear mechanism, but the horizontal and longitudinal feeds are driven by two servo motors respectively, and the change wheel is no longer used. The transmission chain is greatly shortened by traditional components such as, clutch, etc.
  • 2. High rigidity, in order to match the high precision of the numerical control system, the rigidity of CNC numerical control lathe machining is high, so as to meet the high precision machining requirements.
  • 3. Lightly drag, the tool post (worktable) is moved by ball screw pair, with low friction and light movement. The supporting special bearings at both ends of the screw have a larger pressure angle than ordinary bearings and are selected when leaving the factory. The lubrication part of CNC machining is automatically lubricated with oil mist. These measures make the CNC CNC lathe machining mobile easy.

Two, CNC numerical control lathe machining characteristics

  • 1. High degree of automation can reduce the operator’s physical labor intensity. The CNC lathe machining process is automatically completed according to the input program. The operator only needs to initiate tool setting, load and unload the workpiece, and change the tool. During the machining process, the main task is to observe and supervise the operation of the lathe. However, due to the high technical content of CNC lathes, the operator’s mental work is correspondingly improved.
  • 2. CNC CNC lathe machining parts have high precision and stable quality. The positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy of the CNC lathe are very high, and it is easier to ensure the consistency of a batch of parts. As long as the process design and procedures are correct and reasonable, coupled with careful operation, the parts can be guaranteed to obtain high machining accuracy and easy to align. The CNC lathe machining process implements quality control.
  • 3. CNC numerical control lathe machining and production efficiency are high. CNC lathe machining is capable of machining multiple machining surfaces in clamping once again, and generally only detects the first part, so it can save many intermediate processes in ordinary lathe machining, such as scribing, size inspection, etc., reducing auxiliary time. And because the quality of the parts processed by the CNC lathe is stable, it brings convenience to the subsequent process, and its overall efficiency is significantly improved.
  • 4. CNC lathe machining is convenient for new product development and modification. CNC lathe machining generally does not require a lot of complex process equipment, and parts with complex shapes and high precision requirements can be processed by programming the machining program. When the product is remodeled or the design is changed, only the program is changed, without the need to redesign Tooling. Therefore, CNC numerical control lathe machining can greatly shorten the product development cycle, and provide a shortcut for the research and development of new products, product improvement and modification.
  • 5. CNC lathe machining can develop to more advanced manufacturing systems. CNC lathe machining and its machining technology are the basis of computer-aided manufacturing.
  • 6. The initial investment of CNC lathe machining is relatively large. This is due to the high cost of CNC lathe machining equipment, a long preparation period for the first machining, and high maintenance costs.
  • 7. CNC lathe machining and maintenance requirements are high. The CNC lathe is a typical CNC lathe machining product of technology-intensive mechatronics. It requires maintenance personnel to understand both mechanical and microelectronic maintenance knowledge, and at the same time be equipped with better maintenance equipment.

3. Parts suitable for CNC lathe machining

  • 1. CNC lathe machining is most suitable for small and medium batch parts of various varieties. With the gradual decline of the manufacturing cost of CNC lathes, the situation of machining large quantities of parts has emerged, whether it is domestic or foreign. When machining small batches and single-piece production, it is also possible to shorten the debugging time of the program and the preparation time of the tooling.
  • 2. CNC lathe machining parts with high precision requirements. The CNC lathe has good rigidity, high manufacturing accuracy, accurate tool setting, and convenient size compensation, so it can process parts with high dimensional accuracy.
  • 3. CNC numerical control lathe processes parts with small surface roughness values. When the material of the workpiece and the tool, the finishing allowance and the tool angle are certain, the surface roughness depends on the cutting speed and feed rate. Ordinary lathes have a constant speed, and the cutting speeds are different for different diameters. For example, CNC lathes have a constant linear speed cutting function. The same linear speed can be used when turning the end face and the outer circle of different diameters to ensure that the surface roughness value is small and consistent. When machining surfaces with different surface roughness, choose a small feed speed for a surface with a small roughness, and a larger feed speed for a surface with a large roughness. The variability is very good, which is difficult to achieve on ordinary lathes.
  • 4. Parts with complex contour shapes. Any plane curve can be approximated by a straight line or arc. CNC lathe machining has arc interpolation function, which can process various complicated contour parts.

Fourth, the management and use of CNC lathe machining

The use of CNC lathe machining requires careful use of the operator, and must rely on scientific management. A perfect management system and scientific production mode are effective means to improve production efficiency.

  • 1. Establish a sound and complete management system to effectively control and supervise the work of the relevant personnel of the CNC lathe, so that the operation and operation of the lathe can be controlled.
  • 2. Strengthen the training of technicians and skilled worker management personnel. The training of CNC machining is always a long-term work and a process of continuous improvement. Through training craftsmen, they can compile more simplified CNC machining processes, simplify procedures, and shorten machining time; technical workers can improve operating skills; managers can better understand the characteristics of CNC equipment, process control, and implement management with modern production management concepts.
  • 3. Scientifically organize production. Improve the problem of work stoppage and unbalanced production capacity, increase the operating rate of CNC lathe machining, rationally arrange the production cycle, and rationally allocate the production tasks. Use the similarity of parts machining to classify the parts to be processed, so as to make reasonable arrangements in process preparation, production planning and scheduling, and improve the balance of equipment production capacity. Scientific production batches will greatly reduce the ratio of lathe adjustment time and tooling preparation time, which can improve batch efficiency.
  • 4. In order to give play to the value of CNC lathe machining, the operator must correctly master the operating principles of CNC lathe. Operate the lathe correctly according to the lathe operating rules; process the parts according to the process and procedure requirements; coordinate the dimensions of the parts, tools, and pressure plates before machining on the CNC lathe to avoid interference and collision; improve technical quality, reduce non-machining time such as tool installation and alignment; correct Maintain various auxiliary tools to ensure reliable accuracy.

V. Conclusion

The application of CNC lathe machining has become increasingly widespread, and how to “manage, use, and maintain” CNC lathes has become an important issue to be solved urgently. The use of CNC lathe machining is not a simple use of equipment, but a series of applications with strong attributes. Only by scientific management, fully understanding the characteristics of CNC lathe machining, and coordinating the balance of each production link, can it truly bring out its economic benefits.