The difference between the full-function CNC lathe and the traditional lathe is that it has its own “brain”-CNC system, which can be automated and does not require full manual operation by staff. The CNC system is an important part of the full-function CNC lathe. Let’s understand.
The numerical control system is mainly composed of human-computer interaction interface + numerical control core + programmable logic controller + drive, in which the human-computer interaction interface is used for human-computer interaction; the numerical control core is the core of the numerical control system, used for trajectory calculation and position Adjustments and related controls, such as acceleration, tool data, zero offset, and various complex machine tool functions.
The programmable logic controller is used for lathe logic control, such as tool magazine, hydraulic equipment, etc .; the drive is the actuator, which adjusts the current loop and speed loop of the motor, so that it can quickly and accurately complete the instructions issued by the CNC core .
CNC system is not only an accessory for CNC lathe, but also a complete solution. This includes both hardware and software. Only when the combination of software and hardware, as well as the human-machine interaction interface, CNC core, programmable logic controller and driver in the CNC system, work together to complete the control of the machine tool to ensure full functionality. High precision and high quality of CNC lathe. Therefore, the quality of the CNC system will directly affect the accuracy and efficiency of the CNC lathe.
A good CNC system can provide many types of motors for users to choose, such as high dynamic motors, large inertia motors, etc. Users can choose motors with different characteristics according to different requirements of machine tools. A good servo motor generally has a higher encoder resolution. The larger the resolution, the smaller the speed fluctuation. Motors with high-resolution encoders will be more stable and more accurate to control.
People in the industry know that there will be many elastic connections between the motor and the machine (such as elastic couplings). After a series of elastic links, the machine tool will have slight errors in the transmission process, and the system only knows the feedback of the motor at this time. , Do not know the error in the transmission, so the actual control accuracy will be affected by this. In view of this situation, the mid-to-high-end CNC system can be connected to the grating ruler as a direct measurement system to form a “full closed loop”, so that the system can directly obtain the actual feedback of the machine through the grating ruler for control and adjustment, thereby improving the machine tool Precision.
Today, many high-end CNC systems have been able to achieve more than nano-level calculation accuracy. This also means that high-end CNC systems can provide higher control accuracy, thereby achieving a more ideal interpolation trajectory. Not only that, the machine tool will inevitably be affected by the vibration of the external environment during the production process, such as cooling equipment, hydraulic equipment, or other machine tools.
This kind of problem can generally be found by measuring the position deviation of the grating ruler, but it is difficult to suppress and eliminate by adjusting the dynamic response parameters of the machine tool. And high-end CNC machine tools can often suppress external interference through the same method as the advanced positioning control function of Siemens APC (Advance Position Control) to further improve the machining performance of the machine tool.
Although the core of the CNC machine tool lies in the machine tool itself, good mechanical performance is the foundation, but a good, high-quality CNC system can make the machine’s excellent mechanical performance more vividly, to achieve the purpose of icing on the cake.
At the same time that CNC machine tools have made successive breakthroughs, China has also achieved great results in the production and marketing of CNC machine tools. According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics, in April 2018, China’s metal cutting machine output was 56,000 units, an increase of 12% year-on-year, of which CNC metal cutting machine output was 20,000 units, an increase of 17.6% year-on-year; metal forming machine tool output was 24,000 Taiwan and Taiwan increased by 4.3% year-on-year. The output of metal cutting tools and casting machinery were 429.8885 pieces and 194,000 units respectively, down 4.1% and 6.7% year-on-year. From January to April, the cumulative production of metal cutting machine tools was 187,000 units, an increase of 6.3% year-on-year, of which the cumulative production of CNC metal cutting machines was 64,000 units, an increase of 3.2% year-on-year; the cumulative production of metal forming machine tools was 86,000 units, an increase of 1.2% year-on-year; The cumulative production of cutting tools was 15.42484 million pieces, a decrease of 5.9% year-on-year; the cumulative production of casting machinery was 728,000 units, a decrease of 13.4% year-on-year.
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At the same time that CNC machine tools have made successive breakthroughs, China has also achieved great results in the production and marketing of CNC machine tools.